The word tourist was used in 1772 and tourism in 1811. It is formed from the word tour, which is derived from Old English turian, from Old French torner, from Latin tornare; 'to turn on a lathe,' which is itself from Ancient Greek tornos (τόρνος); 'lathe'.
In 1936, the League of Nations defined a foreign tourist as "someone traveling abroad for at least twenty-four hours". Its successor, the United Nations, amended this definition in 1945, by including a maximum stay of six months. In 1941 Hunziker and Kraft defined tourism as "the sum of the phenomena and relationships arising from the travel and stay of non-residents, insofar as they do not lead to permanent residence and are not connected with any earning activity." In 1976, the Tourism Society of England's definition was: "Tourism is the temporary, short-term movement of people to destinations outside the places where they normally live and work and their activities during the stay at each destination. It includes movements for all purposes." In 1981, the International Association of Scientific Experts in Tourism defined tourism in terms of particular activities chosen and undertaken outside the home. In 1994 the United Nations identified three forms of tourism in its Recommendations on Tourism Statistics: Domestic tourism, involving residents of the given country traveling only within this country Inbound tourism, involving non-residents traveling in the given country Outbound tourism, involving residents traveling in another country The terms tourism and travel are sometimes used interchangeably. In this context, travel has a similar definition to tourism, but implies a more purposeful journey. The terms tourism and tourist are sometimes used pejoratively, to imply a shallow interest in the cultures or locations visited. By contrast, traveler is often used as a sign of distinction. The sociology of tourism has studied the cultural values underpinning these distinctions and their implications for class relations.
Antiquity Travel outside a person's local area for leisure was largely confined to wealthy classes, who at times travelled to distant parts of the world, to see great buildings and works of art, learn new languages, experience new cultures, and to taste different cuisines. As early as Shulgi, however, kings praised themselves for protecting roads and building waystations for travelers. During the Roman Republic, spas and coastal resorts such as Baiae were popular among the rich. Pausanias wrote his Description of Greece in the 2nd century AD. In ancient China, nobles sometimes made a point of visiting Mount Tai and, on occasion, all five Sacred Mountains.
nternational tourist arrivals reached 1.035 billion in 2012, up from over 996 million in 2011, and 952 million in 2010. In 2011 and 2012, international travel demand continued to recover from the losses resulting from the late-2000s recession, where tourism suffered a strong slowdown from the second half of 2008 through the end of 2009. After a 5 per cent increase in the first half of 2008, growth in international tourist arrivals moved into negative territory in the second half of 2008, and ended up only 2 per cent for the year, compared to a 7 per cent increase in 2007. The negative trend intensified during 2009, exacerbated in some countries due to the outbreak of the H1N1 influenza virus, resulting in a worldwide decline of 4.2 per cent in 2009 to 880 million international tourists arrivals, and a 5.7 per cent decline in international tourism receipts.
By the Middle Ages, Christianity, Buddhism, and Islam all had traditions of pilgrimage that motivated even the lower classes to undertake distant journeys for health or spiritual improvement, seeing the sights along the way. The Islamic hajj is still central to its faith and Chaucer's Canterbury Tales and Wu Cheng'en's Journey to the West remain classics of English and Chinese literature. The 10th- to 13th-century Song dynasty also saw secular travel writers such as Su Shi (11th century) and Fan Chengda (12th century) become popular in China. Under the Ming, Xu Xiake continued the practice. In medieval Italy, Francesco Petrarch also wrote an allegorical account of his 1336 ascent of Mount Ventoux that praised the act of traveling and criticized frigida incuriositas ("cold lack of curiosity"). The Burgundian poet Michault Taillevent (fr) later composed his own horrified recollections of a 1430 trip through the Jura Mountains.
Cruising is a popular form of water tourism. Leisure cruise ships were introduced by the Peninsular & Oriental Steam Navigation Company (P&O) in 1844, sailing from Southampton to destinations such as Gibraltar, Malta and Athens. In 1891, German businessman Albert Ballin sailed the ship Augusta Victoria from Hamburg into the Mediterranean Sea. In 1900, one of the first purpose-built cruise ships was Prinzessin Victoria Luise, built in Hamburg
The state of Goa, in India, is famous for its beaches and places of worship, and tourism is its primary industry. Tourism is generally focused on the coastal areas of Goa, with decreased tourist activity inland. Foreign tourists, mostly from Europe, arrive in Goa in winter whilst the summer and monsoon seasons see a large number of Indian tourists. Goa handled 2.29 per cent of all foreign tourist arrivals in the country in 2011. This relatively small state is situated on the western coast of India, between the borders of Maharashtra and Karnataka and is better known to the world as a former Portuguese enclave on Indian soil. Tourism is said to be the backbone of Goa's economy. Influenced by over 450 years of Portuguese rule and Latin culture, Goa presents a somewhat different representation of the country to foreign visitors. Major tourist attractions include: Bom Jesus Basilica, Fort Aguada, a wax museum on Indian culture and a heritage museum. The Churches and Convents of Goa have been declared a World Heritage Site by UNESCO. As of 2013 Goa was the destination of choice for Indian and foreign tourists, particularly Britons, with limited means who wanted to party. The state was hopeful that changes could be made which would attract a more upscale demographiic.
Goa's beaches cover about 125 kilometres (78 mi) of its coastline. These beaches are divided into North and South Goa. North Goa is more commercial and touristy with an abundance of mostly low and medium budget tourist accommodations; whereas South Goa is where most higher–end hotels and private beaches are located. A notable exception in South Goa is Palolem Beach which features basic accommodation and is one of the most visited beaches in Goa. The further north or south you go, the more isolated the beaches get. Some of the more popular beaches are Colva, Calangute, Baga and Anjuna. These beaches are lined with shacks that provide fresh sea food and drinks.
Bondla Wildlife Sanctuary, Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary and Mollem National Park, Cotigao Wildlife Sanctuary, Mhadei Wildlife Sanctuary and Netravali Wildlife Sanctuary harbour Goa's rich bio-diversity. Foxes, wild boars and migratory birds are also found in the forests of Goa. The avifauna includes kingfishers, mynas and parrots. The famous Dudhsagar Falls, India's fifth tallest at 310 metres, is located inside Bhagwan Mahaveer Sanctuary at the Goa - Karnataka border. The renowned Salim Ali Bird Sanctuary is located on the island of Chorao. The endangered olive ridley sea turtle can be found on Morjim Beach in Pernem, Northern Goa and Galgibaga Beach in Canacona, Southern Goa. The turtles are listed in Schedule I of the Indian Wildlife Act. Morjim Beach is also host to a number of migratory birds during late September to early April. The area surrounding the shore at Tembwada in Morjim also abounds in various species of birds. A number of international bird watching tours are organised in the area.
There are several museums located in Goa: The Goa State Museum set up in 1996 aims at centralising and preserving antiquities, art objects and objects of cultural importance, depicting the different aspects of the Goan History and Culture. It is located at Patto in Goa's capital city of Panaji. The Naval Aviation Museum near Dabolim is one among three of its kind in India. Goa Science Centre, located at the Miramar beach in Panaji was opened in December 2001 and it houses many wonders of Science and Astronomy. Archaeological Museum and Portrait Gallery located in Old Goa is run by the Archaeological Survey of India. The Museum of Christian Art has a number of paintings, sculptures and religious silverware dating back to the 16th century. 'Ancestral Goa' is dedicated to the preservation of art, culture and environment and was established to preserve Goa's past and its rich traditions. This magnificent project is the result of a lot of meticulous research, planning and hardwork. Located in Loutolim, it opened to the public in April 1995. A special attraction of this project is the sculpture of Sant Mirabai strumming on her tambori and measuring 14 meters by 5 meters which was chiseled in Greco - Roman style from a vast expanse of laterite stone by Maendra Jocelino Araujo Alvares in just 30 days. The Big Foot Cross Museum is located at 'Ancestral Goa' in Loutolim. It is an unusual collection of crosses, from all over the world. The Pilar Museum is located on the Pilar hillock where the Pilar Seminary is also located. The Museum was founded by Fr Costa, and highlights various finds on and around the Pilar hillock and now preserved in the seminary museum. The 'Wax World' Museum, inaugurated in 2008 is located in Old Goa contains exquisite wax statues. The statues have been sculpted by Shreeji Bhaskaran, who owns the museum and is also responsible for giving India its first wax museum located at Ooty, Karnataka, which was set up in March 2007. 'Goa Chitra', established by Victor Hugo Gomes, is an ethnographic museum in Benaulim showcasing traditional Goan farming implements and other Goan antiques
Another major tourist attraction in Goa is its heritage homes. A legacy of the Portuguese colonial regime of more than 450 years, some of these palatial homes are now converted into hotels while many are still inhabited by the people. The popular heritage homes in Goa are: The Fernandes house, also known as 'Voddlem Ghor' in Cotta is an architectural marvel in Chandor. The Menezes Bragança House in Chandor was built circa 1730. It was once owned by Luís de Menezes Bragança, Tristão de Bragança Cunha, Beatriz de Menezes Bragança, and her sister Berta Menezes Bragança. The Vivian Coutinho House in Fatorda is among the few Goan houses with decorative Azulejo tiles.
The landscape of Goa is dotted with several forts. Fort Tiracol, the seventeenth-century Portuguese Fort Aguada, and Chapora Fort, to name a few.
Academics have defined mass tourism as travel by groups on pre-scheduled tours, usually under the organization of tourism professionals. This form of tourism developed during the second half of the 19th century in the United Kingdom and was pioneered by Thomas Cook. Cook took advantage of Europe's rapidly expanding railway network and established a company that offered affordable day trip excursions to the masses, in addition to longer holidays to Continental Europe, India, Asia and the Western Hemisphere which attracted wealthier customers. By the 1890s over 20,000 tourists per year used Thomas Cook & Son. The relationship between tourism companies, transportation operators and hotels is a central feature of mass tourism. Cook was able to offer prices that were below the publicly advertised price because his company purchased large numbers of tickets from railroads. One contemporary form of mass tourism, package tourism, still incorporates the partnership between these three groups. Travel developed during the early 20th century and was facilitated by the development of the automobiles and later by airplanes. Improvements in transport allowed many people to travel quickly to places of leisure interest, so that more people could begin to enjoy the benefits of leisure time. In Continental Europe, early seaside resorts included: Heiligendamm, founded in 1793 at the Baltic Sea, being the first seaside resort; Ostend, popularised by the people of Brussels; Boulogne-sur-Mer and Deauville for the Parisians; Taormina in Sicily. In the United States, the first seaside resorts in the European style were at Atlantic City, New Jersey and Long Island, New York. By the mid-20th century the Mediterranean Coast became the principal mass tourism destination. The 1960s and 1970s saw mass tourism play a major role in the Spanish economic "miracle".
"See the world. It's more fantastic than any dream made or paid for in factories. Ask for no guarantees, ask for no security." ― Ray Bradbury, Fahrenheit 451